Polypyrrole (PPy) nanorods (NRs) and nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized via electrochemical and chemical methods, respectively, and tested upon ammonia exposure using Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Characterization of both nanomaterials via Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the formation of PPy, displaying vibration bands consistent with the literature. Additionally, XPS reveals the presence of neutral PPy species as major components in PPy NRs and PPy NPs, and other species including polarons and bipolarons. Raman and XPS analysis after ammonia exposure show changes in the physical/chemical properties of PPy, confirming the potential of both samples for ammonia sensing. Results demonstrate that the electrochemically synthesized NRs involve both proton and electron transfer mechanisms during ammonia exposure, as opposed to the chemically synthesized NPs, which show a mechanism dominated by electron transfer. Thus, the different detection mechanisms in PPy NRs and PPy NPs appear to be connected to the particular morphological and chemical composition of each film. These results contribute to elucidate the mechanisms involved in ammonia detection and the influence of the synthesis routes and the physical/chemical characteristics of PPy.